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Other Methods

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There is no on-size-fits-all ID method, especially for complex mixtures.  For example, natural sterol compounds are difficult to identify conclusively, and can be confused with anabolic steroids even using chromatography paired with mass spectrometry.  Below is a list of links that offer some further insight on other methods that may be used to identify problematic dietary ingredients:

AFCC for Tribulus terrestris steroidal saponins (A.C. Grace and Flora Research Laboratories)

Polarimetry to determine purity and potential adulteration of chiral substances such as chondroitin sulfate sodium salt and limonene

IR Methods

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DNA Methods

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Please contact us for more information on authentication of botanical identity for dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

Organoleptic Methods

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Below is a partial list of botanicals for which organoleptic identifications are available for IDDI Clients.

Aconitum napellus (leaf)
Aconitum napellus (root)
Actaea racemosa (root and rhizome)
Aesculus hippocastanum (seed)
Agrimonia eupatoria (flowering tops)
Aloe vera
Angelica sinensis
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Aristolochia sp.
Arnica montana (flower)
Astragalus sp.
Bacopa monnieri (whole plant)
Berberis aquifolium (root)
Cannabis sativa
Carthamus tinctorius (flower)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue Cohosh)
Chamaemelum nobile (flower)
Cichorium intybus (root)
Cimicifuga racemosa
Coriandrum sativum (seed)
Crataegus sp.
Cucurbita pepo (seed)
Cuminum cyminum (seed)
Echinacea angustifolia
Echinacea pallida
Echinacea purpurea
Elettaria cardamomum (fruit)
Elymus repens (root)
Eucalyptus globulus (leaf)
Euphrasia officinalis (aerial parts)
Foeniculum vulgare (fruit)
Frangula purshiana (bark)
Fucus vesiculosis (seaweed)
Ganoderma lucidum
Garcinia hanburyi (gum resin)
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba (leaf)
Glycyrrhiza glabra (root)
Humulus lupulus (strobile)
Hydrangea arborescens (root)
Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal)
Hypericum perforatum (flowering tops)
Ilex paraguariensis (leaf)
Illicium verum (fruit)
Isatis tinctoria (root)
Juniperus communis (fruit)
Justicia adhatoda (leaf)
Lactuca virosa (leaf)
Lavandula angustifolia (flower)
Ligustrum lucidum (fruit)
Linum usitatissimum (seed)
Magnolia officinalis (bark)
Matricaria recutita (flower)
Mentha ×piperita (leaf)
Olea europaea (leaf)
Panax ginseng (root)
Panax quinquefolius (root)
Passiflora incarnata (aerial parts)
Pimpinella anisum (fruit)
Piper methysticum (rhizome)
Plantago ovata (seed husk)
Rosa canina (fruit)
Rosmarinus officinalis (aerial parts)
Salix sp. (willow)
Salvia officinalis (leaf)
Sambucus nigra (flower)
Sambucus nigra (fruit)
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria lateriflora (aerial parts)
Serenoa repens (fruit)
Tanacetum parthenium (leaf)
Taraxacum officinale (root)
Terminalia chebula (fruit)
Theobroma cacao (fruit)
Trifolium pratense (flower)
Trigonella foenum-graecum (seed)
Turnera diffusa (leaf)
Ulmus fulva (slippery elm)
Ulmus rubra (bark)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry)
Valeriana officinalis
Verbascum spp. (flower)
Verbena officinalis (aerial parts)
Viburnum opulus (cramp bark)
Viburnum prunifolium
Vitex agnus-castus
Withania somnifera (root)
Zingiber officinale (rhizome)

Macroscopy/Microscopy Methods

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Below is a partial list of botanicals for which macroscopy and microscopy identifications are available for IDDI Clients.

 

Acacia senegal (gum)
Aconitum napellus (leaf)
Aconitum napellus (root)
Actaea racemosa (root and rhizome)
Aesculus hippocastanum (seed)
Agrimonia eupatoria (flowering tops)
Allium sativum (bulb)
Althaea officinalis (root)
Angelica dahurica (root)
Angelica pubescens (root)
Angelica sinensis (root)
Apium graveolens (seed)
Arnebia spp. (root)
Arnica montana (flower)
Artemisia absinthium (leaf)
Avena sativa (herb)
Bacopa monnieri (whole plant)
Berberis aquifolium (root)
Berberis vulgaris (bark)
Bupleurum chinense (root)
Calendula officinalis (flower)
Camellia sinensis (leaf)
Cannabis spp. (pistillate inflorescence and leaf)
Capsicum annuum (fruit)
Carthamus tinctorius (flower)
Centella asiatica (aerial parts)
Chamaemelum nobile (flower)
Cichorium intybus (root)
Cinnamomum aromaticum (bark)
Cinnamomum loureiroi (bark)
Cinnamomum verum (bark)
Coriandrum sativum (seed)
Crataegus laevigata (fruit)
Crataegus laevigata (leaf)
Cucurbita pepo (seed)
Cuminum cyminum (seed)
Curcuma longa (rhizome)
Echinacea angustifolia (root)
Elettaria cardamomum (fruit)
Elymus repens (root)
Eucalyptus globulus (leaf)
Euphrasia officinalis (aerial parts)
Filipendula ulmaria (leaf)
Foeniculum vulgare (fruit)
Frangula purshiana (bark)
Fucus vesiculosis (seaweed)
Garcinia hanburyi (gum resin)
Ginkgo biloba (leaf)
Glycine max (bean)
Glycyrrhiza glabra (root)
Humulus lupulus (strobile)
Hydrangea arborescens (root)
Hydrastis canadensis (aerial parts)
Hydrastis canadensis (root)
Hypericum perforatum (flowering tops)
Illicium verum (fruit)
Juniperus communis (fruit)
Justicia adhatoda (leaf)
Lactuca virosa (leaf)
Linum usitatissimum (seed)
Magnolia officinalis (bark)
Manihot esculenta (root)
Matricaria recutita (flower)
Medicago sativa (leaf)
Mentha ×piperita (leaf)
Mucuna pruriens (seed)
Olea europaea (leaf)
Panax ginseng (root)
Panax quinquefolius (root)
Passiflora incarnata (aerial parts)
Paullinia cupana (seed)
Pimpinella anisum (fruit)
Piper methysticum (root)
Piper nigrum (fruit)
Plantago lanceolata (leaf)
Plantago ovata (seed husk)
Rehmannia glutinosa (root)
Rosa canina (fruit)
Rosmarinus officinalis (leaf)
Ruscus aculeatus (rhizome)
Sambucus nigra (flower)
Sambucus nigra (fruit)
Scutellaria lateriflora (aerial parts)
Senna alexandrina (leaf)
Serenoa repens (fruit)
Sesamum indicum (seed)
Silybum marianum (seed)
Smilax aristolochiifolia (root)
Stellaria media (leaf)
Stevia rebaudiana (leaf)
Tanacetum parthenium (flower)
Taraxacum officinale (root)
Tilia ×europaea (flower)
Triticum aestivum (leaf)
Turnera diffusa (leaf)
Ulmus rubra (bark)
Uncaria tomentosa (root)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (fruit)
Vaccinium myrtillus (fruit)
Valeriana officinalis (root)
Vitis vinifera (seed)
Withania somnifera (root)
Zingiber officinale (rhizome)

HPLC Methods

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This page lists HPLC methods used for identity testing available to IDDI Clients.

TLC Methods

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Methods for identification by thin layer chromatography (TLC) are available for the following botanicals, for IDDI Clients.

Official name Plant part
Achillea millefolium flower
Actaea racemosa root and rhizome
Adhatoda vasica (Malabar Nut Tree) leaf
Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) seed
Agrimonia eupatoria flowering tops
Alchemilla vulgare aerial parts
Allium sativum alliin
Aloe vera leaf and leaf juice
Aloysia citriodora leaf
Alpinia officinarum rhizome
Alpinia oxyphylla fruit
Althaea officinalis (Marshmallow) leaf
Amomum krervanh, Amomum compactum fruit
Amomum villosum, Amomum longiligulare fruit
Andrographis paniculata stem and leaf
Angelica archangelica root
Angelica dahurica root
Angelica pubescens root
Angelica sinensis root
Arctium lappa (Burdock) root
Arctosaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry) leaf
Aristolochia sp. aerial parts
Arnebia euchroma or Arnebia guttata root
Arnica montana flower
Artemesia sp leaf
Artemisia annua leaf
Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos) tea
Astragalus membranaceus root
Astragalus sp. root
Avena sativa aerial parts
Bacopa monnieri aerial parts
Betula pendula and/or Betula pubescens leaf
Bupleurum chinense root
Calendula officinalis flower
Camellia sinensis leaf
Cananga odorata essential oil
Cannabis sativa inflorescence and leaf
Cannabis spp. inflorescence and leaf
Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescens fruit
Carthamus tinctorius (flower) flower
Carum carvi fruit essential oil
Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue Cohosh) root
Centaurium erythrea, Centaurium umbellatum aerial parts
Centella asiatica aerial parts
Cetraria islandica moss
Chamaemelum nobile flower
Chamaemelum nobile flower
Cichorium intybus root
Cimicifuga racemosa root
Cinnamomum aromaticum bark
Citrus paradisi seed
Clematis armandii root
Coix lacryma-jobi seed
Commiphora wightii syn. Commiphora mukul (Guggul) oleogum resin
Coriandrum sativum essential oil
Crataegus sp. leaf and flower
Cucurbita pepo seed
Curcuma longa (Turmeric) rhizome
Cyathula officinalis (root) root
Cynara scolymus leaf
Dammar gum gum resin
Drynaria fortunei rhizome
Echinacea angustifolia root
Echinacea pallida root
Echinacea purpurea root
Eclipta prostrata aerial parts
Elettaria cardamomum fruit
Eleutherococcus gracilistylus root
Equisetum arvense (Common Horsetail) aerial parts
Euphrasia stricta (Eyebright) aerial parts
Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet) aerial parts
Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare var. dulce fruit
Frangula purshiana bark
Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus oxyphylla leaf
Fraxinus spp. leaf
Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body
Gardenia jasminoides fruit
Ginkgo biloba leaf
Glycine max seed
Glycyrrhiza glabra root
Gymnema sylvestre leaf
Handroanthus impetiginosus bark
Harpagophytum procumbens and/or Harpagophytum zeyheri root
Hedera helix leaf
Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and epicalyces
Hoodia gordonii aerial parts
Hordeum vulgare leaf
Humulus lupulus strobile
Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal) root
Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) flowering tops
Ilex paraguariensis leaf
Illicium verum fruit
Isatis tinctoria root
Juglans nigra seed pericarp
Kaempferia galanga rhizome
Lactuca virosa leaf
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Banaba) leaf
Lavandula angustifolia flower
Lavandula latifolia flower
Levisticum officinale root
Ligusticum sinense or Ligusticum jeholense root
Lycium barbarum fruit
Lycopus lucidus (Shiny Bugleweed) aerial parts
Magnolia officinalis bark
Malus pumila fruit
Malva sylvestris flower
Matricaria recutita flower
Medicago sativa leaf
Melaleuca quinquenervia, Melaleuca viridiflora, Melaleuca leucadendra essential oil
Melissa officinalis leaf
Mentha piperita (Peppermint) leaf
Mentha spicata (Spearmint) leaf
Monarda didyma aerial parts
Nepeta cataria (Catnip) aerial parts
Paeonia lactiflora or Paeonia veitchii root
Paeonia suffruticosa root bark
Palmaria palmata (seaweed) whole plant
Panax ginseng root
Panax notoginseng root
Panax quinquefolius root
Passiflora incarnata (Passion flower) aerial parts
Peumus boldus leaf
Phyllanthus amarus herb
Phyllanthus emblica (amla) fruit
Pimpinella anisum seed
Pimpinella anisum fruit
Piper cubeba fruit
Piper longum or Piper retrofractum fruit
Piper methysticum (Kava) rhizome
Piper nigrum fruit
Plantago lanceolata leaf
Plantago ovata seed husk
Plectranthus barbatus (Forskohlii) root
Polygonum multiflorum root
Primula veris flower
Pueraria montana var. chinensis root
Pueraria montana var. lobata root
Pygeum africanum bark
Rehmannia glutinosa root
Reynoutria multiflora root
Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara sagrada) bark
Rhodiola rosea root
Ribes nigrum (Black currant) leaf
Rosa canina fruit
Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts essential oil
Rubus fruticosus (Blackberry) leaf
Rubus idaeus (Raspberry) leaf
Ruscus aculeatus rhizome
Salix sp. (willow) bark
Salvia fruticosa leaf
Salvia lavandulifolia leaf
Salvia miltiorrhiza root
Salvia officinalis essential oil
Salvia sclarea essential oil
Sambucus ebulus (Dwarf elder flower) flower
Sambucus nigra (European elder flower) flower
Saposhnikovia divaricata root
Schisandra chinensis fruit
Scutellaria baicalensis (Baical Skullcap) root
Scutellaria lateriflora (Skullcap) herb
Serenoa repens fruit
Siegesbeckia glabrescens/orientalis/pubescens herb
Silybum marianum (Milk thistle) fruit
Solidago virgaurea aerial parts
Stellaria media leaf
Styrax benzoin gum resin
Styrax tonkinensis gum resin
Tanacetum parthenium flower
Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) aerial parts
Terminalia bellerica fruit
Terminalia chebula fruit
Teucrium sp. herb
Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos, Tilia × vulgaris, or mixtures flower
Trifolium pratense aerial parts and flowers
Triphala fruits
Triticum aestivum leaf
Ulmus fulva (slippery elm) inner bark
Ulmus rubra (Slippery Elm) bark
Uncaria tomentosa (root) root
Urtica dioica and Urtica urens (Nettle) leaf
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit
Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) fruit
Vaccinium myrtillus (fruit) fruit
Valeriana officinalis root
Verbascum spp. flower
Verbena officinalis aerial parts
Viburnum opulus (cramp bark) bark
Viburnum prunifolium bark
Viola arvensis, Viola tricolor flowering aerial parts
Vitex agnus-castus aerial parts
Vitis vinifera seed
Withania somnifera root
Zingiber officinale (Ginger) rhizome
Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa seed